都市实践在深圳 URBANUS @ Shenzhen

作者:URBANUS 都市实践/孟岩
发表于《时代建筑》2014/04 总第138期

为深圳而设计
都市实践为什么会在深圳起步? 为什么至今仍然坚守深圳? 这几乎是所有到访都市实践的人最先要问的。进一步的问题是深圳对于设计型事务所究竟有什么吸引力?深圳的设计土壤还有没有足够的营养不断滋养新的年轻设计事务所?

十五年前都市实践来到这座陌生城市时,我们从未对它抱有任何浪漫想象,而仅仅是带着问题也是冲着解决问题而来,自此就开始了与这个刚刚发展了二十年的既单薄又粗粝的年轻城市共同生长的经历。不断的机遇与失败让我们对深圳有着爱恨交加的复杂感情,从最初带着文化优越感的挑剔目光审视,到置身于不断变化的当下现实中学习,我们正是通过持续的建造和研究而逐渐认识这座城市。2009年都市实践成立十周年之际也恰逢深圳特区成立30周年,在那一刻我们强烈意识到一座城市与一个拥有了它三分之一历史的建筑事务所之间特殊的历史关联。同一年都市实践作为总策展机构集合了大批艺术家和专业学者策划和设计了上海世博会最佳城市实验区的深圳案例馆,并以此为契机更加多维度地对深圳城市历史和文化进行了深入的研究。

深圳是中国城市化的样本,曾经也是新的社会实践、思想观念和制度创新的发生地。它既是一种自上而下的社会与城市理想的实验场,又是自下而上的民间草根力量的滋生地。边缘的地缘政治、移民社会的性格以及文化传统的缺失使得深圳难以产生任何可以一统天下的支配性的观念力量。也正因如此,企业力量、专业精神、包容开放的城市性格得以保存。35年前邓小平少谈主义、不论姓氏(姓“资”姓“社”)、专注发展(“黑猫白猫”)的中国式智慧造就了深圳,35年之后的深圳虽然早已停止了当年“蛇口精神”、“深大实验”式的种种理想主义的乌托邦实验,然而一种不问出处、注重实干,兼顾了实用主义做派和理想主义情节的深圳式的精神遗存仍在这座城市的血脉中流淌。

深圳作为改革开放的“排头兵”和新观念的实验场已经完成了历史使命,从“前卫”进入了主流化的进程。无论是媒体上的“被抛弃说”还是知识界广泛讨论的城市发展战略上的定位不清,总之深圳城市的大叙事年代已经结束。十几年来我们一直在批判深圳创新精神的退色和城市中产阶级化的保守趋势,然而深圳仍有从城市管理者、企业家、文化人和很多专业人士不断通过对城市现状的批判和文化反思表达出强烈的创新渴望。

在我看来,恰恰就是在这种不确定的大背景之下,深圳仍然有着在微观层面持续创新的机制和土壤。记得一次与英国著名社会文化学者斯科特•拉什(Scott Lush)先生探讨深圳的未来时,我们就同意深圳当下的某种定位不清和前路不明,而且有被一种暗自涌动的自下而上的力量簇拥着不断摸索的状态可能是最好的状态。正是这一点使得深圳一直是最具自我批判精神的中国大城市,在不断的自我否定、与他者比拼和试图超越之间不断痛苦转身却永不停歇。更重要的是深圳在此转型过程中仍在不断推出新的问题并急迫需求新的解决方案,而这正是都市实践以解决城市问题为动力的设计实践最佳的生存土壤,相信它也仍会不断催生出新的专注于城市实践的年轻设计力量。

研究引领设计
都市实践在成立之初就提出了要“为新世纪不断产生的城市问题寻找新的解决方案”的目标,从一开始就与深圳的城市化进程紧紧捆绑在了一起。在设计过程中注重直接观察、体验和深入的研究以求清晰的把握问题成了设计开始的基本途径。在2003年开始的“华侨城创意园”规划已经开始了较为详尽的对于区域历史、文化、社会结构等方面的研究,接下来进行了罗湖和华强北片区的城市设计研究,之后的“土楼公舍”项目又启动了对于低收入阶层生活状况、住宅类型和市场需求的研究,此外还有从2004年开始一直持续了十年的深圳城中村研究等等。经过不断积累,在2011年正式成立了都市实践研究部(URB),使研究更加系统和专业化。

URB更像一个开放的平台和插件,通过与国内、国外大学和研究机构以及独立研究人员的广泛合作,它往往从一个项目切入一个片区、一种特定产业或社会问题,我们最终期望将设计工作导向更准确地解决问题且富于更远大社会目标的设计实践。同时研究引领下的设计成了一种新的系统性的知识积累,它是我们不断加深对深圳这座城市认识的有效途径。与深圳当下的发展热点同步,研究部近期的研究项目大多聚焦于正在进行中的旧城和旧村改造,例如在蔡屋围和华强北片区的城市改造研究中,建筑师和研究者试图平衡城市、开发商以及公众对保存城市记忆、区域更新、产业升级的需求以及关注创造新的垂直城市类型的潜在机遇;白石洲与湖贝村的城中村改造研究一方面探讨超高密度的城市街区如何回应原有村民生活方式和租户社区结构改变,使空间升级与社会升级同步;另一方面对于原有湖贝旧村希望通过渐进改造的模式以保留历史记忆和文化遗产。为此我们起初在没有委托的情况下独立作了研究并把研究报告上交给区政府和相关管理机构,并通过组织设计工作坊和各方面专家学者的参与,一定程度上促成了开发商和设计机构对原先全部推倒重来式改造方案的重新思考。

湖贝旧村保护与更新的研究是一个典型的建筑师“主动出击”,在城市中通过仔细的观察发现问题并提供针对性的研究,进而通过与相关机构的沟通介入城市改造决策者的视野。都市实践此时介入的目标不是试图获得一个项目,而是希望作为城市敏锐的观察着和研究者对城市未来提出富于洞见的创新构想。虽然这样的努力并不一定都会被甲方接受,但至少通过积极介入的方式,尽力平衡各方利益,有可能最大限度的争取对决策者施加一定的影响。

全球化下的地方性实践
在全球化的当下,当建筑师们热衷往返于全球各地输出设计,为全球化所提供的机遇而兴奋不已之际,那些还能专注于一座城市,通过默默耕耘而改变一个城市的建筑师们似乎更应受人尊敬。像西扎之于葡萄牙的波尔图,还有很多不知名姓的建筑师与他们所在的城市长期保持着紧密的互动关系,日积月累地改变着自己生活的城市。值得注意的是即使是象库哈斯这样似乎更全面拥抱全球化的建筑师如今也在反思地方性和民族性的丧失或许正是世界各国近百年来全面吸收现代性的负面结果。当下建筑师职业的过渡商业化、建筑的产品化,尤其是研究的缺失进一步导致了当代建筑在世界范围内的同质化和一般化。建筑不再回应一座城市、一个地区的独特语境和文化特征,不再具有清晰的社会目标和文化使命,这是当代建筑学面临的深刻危机。

最后,全球和地方、中心与边缘在当下早已不是彻底的二元对立,在网络化、信息化的世界里这种时空概念的边缘已经十分模糊。传统的欧洲中心主义视野下的地方性和边缘性概念早已开始松动,在昔日的所谓“边缘”和“地方”的影响力早已不容忽视,并业已形成对传统“中心”的挑战和对全球化的补充。而此时的深圳也再次处于这种角色的转换和重新定位中,由最初的边缘到上世纪八十年代的中心(经济的和观念的),直到现在的既非中心也非边缘的游离状态。重回中心(观念、技术、文化、设计等)、或挑战中心以重树文化自信的强烈渴望正呼唤着新一轮的创新实践。在此种背景下,都市实践的设计和研究会更加专注于特定地域文化的当下转型及其社会及空间呈现,我们相信只有如此才能真正做到具有全球化视野的同时又深深植根于本土的当代建筑实践。

Design for Shenzhen
Why did Shenzhen become the place where URBANUS established its first office? What is the reason that the company still stays on in this city? These are the most commonly asked questions by people who first visit the URBANUS office there. Further questions include: What is the attraction of this city to design-oriented firms? Is there sufficient nutrition in Shenzhen’s design soil that will continue supporting young design offices?

Fifteen years ago when we first arrived at Shenzhen, our expectation and imagination of this city was nothing romantic—we came with questions; we came for questions. At that point, Shenzhen was a young city that had just undergone two decades of vulnerable but extensive development. URBANUS was then founded to grow with city. Initially, we took a critical stance toward the city, with our cultural superiority. After experiencing numerous opportunities and failures, we learnt to adapt ourselves to the ever changing reality. Over the course of forming a love-hate relationship with this city, we understand it better and better through our continuous researching and constructing efforts. In 2009, URBANUS embraced its 10th anniversary, which also marked the 30th anniversary of the Shenzhen SEZ’s establishment. The coincidence reveals the unique historical tie between a city and an architectural design firm which shares one third of the city’s history. The same year, URBANUS, as the chief curator, summoned a legion of artists and professional scholars to organize and design the Shenzhen Case Pavilion at UBPA (Urban Best Practice Area) of Shanghai Expo, seeing it as an opportunity to carry out multi-dimensional, in-depth research on Shenzhen’s history and culture.

Shenzhen, a demonstration of China’s urbanization as well as the place where new social practices, ideologies and institutional innovations took place, is not only a top-down pilot site for realizing social and urban dreams, but also a bottom-up spot that breeds private initiatives. Its marginalized geopolitics, migrant communities, and the absence of traditional culture together have made it difficult for any single idea to achieve dominance over this city. Therefore, entrepreneurship, professionalism, and the open and inclusive urban characteristic are preserved. Shenzhen credits its early torrid growth to the Chinese wisdom embedded in policies introduced by Deng Xiaoping 35 years ago; the policies do not give priority to “–ism”s (stereotype principles), or “systems” (socialism or capitalism), but with a sole focus on development (“It doesn't matter whether a cat is white or black, as long as it catches mice.”). Today, although Shenzhen has been away from the past various idealistic utopian experiments, such as the “Shekou Spirit” and the “Shenzhen University Experiment,” the city still maintains its unique spiritual artifacts—fairness, experimentalism, pragmatism, and idealism.

Shenzhen has fulfilled its mission as the bellwether of reform and of the opening-up policy, as well as being the pilot site for new ideas; it starts the transformation process from “vanguard” into mainstream. Whether evidenced by the media that says the city has been “abandoned,” or by the discussion among scholars about the its unclear positioning of urban development strategy, it has become clear that Shenzhen’s grand narrative age has ended. Over the past decade, we have been criticizing Shenzhen’s fading creativity and the conservative trend of gentrification. Meanwhile, there are urban managers, entrepreneurs, cultured people and many professionals who convey their strong desire for innovation through continuous criticism on the city’s status quo and the introspection of culture.

From my own viewpoint, it is such uncertainties that cultivate an environment in which Shenzhen is capable of maintaining its innovative mechanism and creative soil, at the micro level. As I recall, at a discussion about the future of Shenzhen with Mr. Scott Lush, a famous sociocultural scholar from the UK, we agreed that Shenzhen was currently facing the uncertain positioning of its future development; also, driven by the emerging bottom-up force, the city is always in a state of constant exploration—which is probably the best state for it. That is also the reason why Shenzhen has been observing self-criticism more closely than other cities in China: it never stops criticizing itself, comparing itself with and trying to surpass others. More critically, Shenzhen is a city that never stops raising new questions and seeking out new solutions over the course of its transitional process, which provides URBANUS, a design practice dedicated to solving urban problems, and other such firms that with exactly what it needs to grow.

Research-Led Design
When URBANUS was first established, it identified its goal as “search for new solutions to urban problems generated in the new century,” which was intricately tied to Shenzhen’s urbanization. The first thing we do when designing is to clearly identify the problem through direct observation, experience and thorough research. We carried out a detailed research for the “OCT LOFT” project commenced in 2003, on regional history, culture, social structure and so on. We also conducted the urban design research on Luohu and Huaqiangbei precinct, and another research initiative on lifestyle, residential typology and market demand of the low-income class for the “Urban Tulou” project. Moreover, for more than a decade we have conducted on-going research on the urban village phenomenon in Shenzhen. As a result of the increasing number of research projects, we created URBANUS Research Bureau (URB) in 2011 with the hope to systemize and professionalize our research.

URB tends to be a plug-in or an open platform where independent researchers from domestic and international universities and research institutions can work together on a particular project deemed as an entry point into understanding a precinct, a particular industry, or social problems. The ultimate goal of our design is to devise more workable solutions with profound social implications. Meanwhile, the research-led design transforms into a systematic collection of knowledge that opens up accesses for us to better understand the city. Keeping abreast of the newest development of Shenzhen, URB’s recent research projects concentrate on the ongoing redevelopment of old towns and villages. For instance, in the research on precinct redevelopment in Caiwuwei and Huaqiangbei, architects and researchers attempted to reach the optimal balance of interests among the city, the developer, and the public in terms of urban memories, regional regeneration, and the demand for industrial upgrade; meanwhile, they concern about the potential of creating new vertical urban typologies. Another example would be the research on urban village redevelopment in Baishizhou Village and Hubei Village. On the one hand, we studied how a hyper-dense mega block can respond to villagers’ original lifestyle as well as to the change in the tenant community structure, therefore synchronizing special upgrade with social upgrade; on the other hand, we hoped to save the old Hubei Village through a gradual redevelopment model that preserves historical memories and cultural artifacts. For these reasons, we launched independent research without being commissioned and submitted the research report to the district government and relevant management institutions. Then we invited specialists from multiple disciplines and organized design workshops that, in part, led developers and design institutions to rethink about the original redevelopment proposal which advocated a tabula rasa strategy.

The research on the preservation and regeneration of Hubei Village is a prime example of architects “taking the initiative.” Carefully peering into the city, we reveal problems, perform targeted research, and communicate with relevant institutions to intervene into the perspective of the decision makers. The motivation of our intervention is not about obtaining any project, but rather to set forth an in-depth and creative conception for the city as an incisive urban observant and researcher. Although active intervention and balancing of interests might not be fully accepted by clients, it is very likely that such efforts will sway the decision makers at some point.

A Glocal Design Practice
In the context of globalization, architects today are keen on travelling around the world to export their design. It seems that when the world is excited about the opportunities derived from globalization, the architects who stick to one city and quietly make a difference to that city is more respectable—such as Alvaro Siza who is based in Oporto, and many other unknown architects who keep a long-term, intimate, and interactive relationship with the cities they grow with and gradually make a difference to the cities. It is worth mentioning that, nowadays, even the internationalized big names such as Rem Koolhas also start to rethink about the loss of locality and ethnicity incurred from the recent centuries of uncritical assimilation of modernity. The over-commercialization of the occupation of architect, the commoditization of architectural design, and especially the destitution of research, collectively result in the world-wide homogenization and generalization of contemporary architecture. Architecture is no longer the reflection of a city’s or a region’s features; nor does it carry clear social objectives or cultural missions—contemporary architecture is facing such a severe crisis.

Lastly, neither “global/local” nor “central/marginal” represent a strictly binary opposition, because the boundary between the two opposites today is becoming blurred in the web-oriented, information-intensive world. The original definition of localism and marginalism under the traditional Eurocentric ideology have been altered, as the increasing influence of the “marginal” and the “local” is posing a challenge to the “central” and supplementing the globalization. Under such circumstances, Shenzhen is in the middle of a role shift—from initially the marginal state to becoming the center (in terms of economy and new ideas) in the 1980s, and to the current indefinite state where it is regarded as neither central nor marginal. Whether it is the desire of going back to the center (in terms of ideas, technologies, culture, design, and so forth), or the ambition to restore the cultural confidence by challenging the center, Shenzhen is desperately calling for a new wave of innovative practice. Give such a context, URBANUS’ design and research will increase the focus on local culture when it comes to ongoing transitions, and will be more devoted to social and spatial presentation. We firmly believe that this is the key for an architectural design firm to become internationally aware while stay deeply-rooted in local practice.

 

 




评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 4440
建筑设计 [2007-08-07 04:25 PM]
标题: 建筑设计
链接: http://www.gzzhihai.com
摘要: 广州智海建筑工程技术有限公司是新型的股份制国家甲级建筑设计公司。主要承担建筑设计、城市规划、景观设计、楼盘设计以及房地产前期策划及工程咨询等领域,从而积累了丰富的经验,在业内也拥有良好的口牌。联系电话:0769-22659959 网址:http://www.gzzhihai.com31104

发电机 [2007-06-18 11:53 AM]
标题: 发电机
链接: http://www.bj-kc.com.cn
摘要: 发电机25732

北京机票查询 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京机票查询
链接: http://www.jp110.cn/jplm/bjjp/
摘要: 北京机票查询

北京机票预定 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京机票预定
链接: http://www.tjjpw.cn/jipiao/bjjp/zxxx/
摘要: 北京机票预定

北京机票 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京机票
链接: http://www.jp110.cn/jplm/bjjp/
摘要: 北京机票

北京特价机票 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京特价机票
链接: http://www.tjjpw.cn/jipiao/bjjp/tjxx/
摘要: 北京特价机票

北京国际机票 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京国际机票
链接: http://www.tjjpw.cn/jipiao/bjjp/gjxx/
摘要: 北京国际机票

北京打折机票 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京打折机票
链接: http://www.tjjpw.cn/jipiao/bjjp/dzxx/
摘要: 北京打折机票

北京机票 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京机票
链接: http://www.tjjpw.cn/jipiao/bjjp/
摘要: 北京机票

北京机票查询 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京机票查询
链接: http://www.tjjpw.cn/jipiao/bjjp/jpcx/
摘要: 北京机票查询

北京国际机票 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京国际机票
链接: http://www.jp119.cn/PlaneTicket/39_1.html
摘要: 北京国际机票

北京航班查询 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京航班查询
链接: http://www.jp119.cn/PlaneTicket/35_1.html
摘要: 北京航班查询

北京打折机票 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京打折机票
链接: http://www.jp119.cn/PlaneTicket/36_1.html
摘要: 北京打折机票

北京机票 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京机票
链接: http://www.jp119.cn/PlaneTicket/1_1.html
摘要: 北京机票

北京特价机票 [2007-04-14 04:00 AM]
标题: 北京特价机票
链接: http://www.jp119.cn/PlaneTicket/37_1.html
摘要: 北京特价机票

标题: 北京到法兰克福机票,北京到法兰克福航班时刻表
链接: http://air.boeing787.cn/bjs/239.htm
摘要: 北京到法兰克福机票,北京到法兰克福航班时刻表

标题: 北京至法兰克福机票,北京飞法兰克福航班时刻表,飞机票
链接: http://air.cn-trip.cn/pek/480.htm
摘要: 北京至法兰克福机票,北京飞法兰克福航班时刻表,飞机票

标题: 北京到法兰克福机票,北京到法兰克福机票查询,北京到法兰克福机票价格
链接: http://www.bjmhsp.cn/mhsp/20061015182.htm
摘要: 北京到法兰克福机票,北京到法兰克福机票查询,北京到法兰克福机票价格

标题: 北京到法兰克福机票,北京到法兰克福航班时刻表
链接: http://air.isun.net.cn/jp/bj-jp-614.htm
摘要: 北京到法兰克福机票,北京到法兰克福航班时刻表

标题: 北京到法兰克福航班,北京到法兰克福机票,国际机票,航班时刻表
链接: http://air.1gou.net/gjp/bj-gj-379.htm
摘要: 北京到法兰克福航班,北京到法兰克福机票,国际机票,航班时刻表

发表评论
你没有权限发表留言!