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 深圳,你还有理想主义的激情吗?
 ——2008.11.14在深圳经济特区研究会上的发言

● 徐景安  

     我国30年的改革是在邓小平的推动下完成的一次伟大的转折,即从阶级斗争为纲转向经济为中心,从计划经济转向市场经济,从农业文明转向工业文明。在这次伟大转折中,深圳起了排头兵的作用。当时的深圳人,尤其是领导者充满了一种对理想的追求、对事业的执着,正是在这种理想主义激情的鼓舞下不畏阻力、敢想敢闯,杀出了一条血路。今天的深圳功成名就,人均GDP一万美元,年财政收入600亿元,成为中国最富裕的城市。深圳还需要改革吗?“改革是深圳的灵魂”,这样的口号也曾出现过,但很快在深圳的时空中消失,改革已远离深圳而去。深圳没有了当年改革的热情…… 

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分类:都市扫描| CityScan | 固定链接 | 禁止评论 | 引用: -25 | 查看次数: 4341

纽约时报评都市实践

现代中国城市里的“小王国”

【美国《纽约时报》网站10月13日文章】 作者尼古拉·奥拉索夫
  
  刚刚在库珀一休伊特国家设计博物馆开展的《“土楼”:中国廉租住宅》展览,也许无法驱散中国城市在西方人心目中留下的到处是毫无人气的塔楼的可怕印像。这种灵气十足的建筑工程在中国还是特例,并非常见。
  然而,这次展览进一步证明,就建筑师的实验而言,中国已经成为全球最为肥沃的土地。这种创新的迸发遍布各处, 从宏伟的奥运场馆、光鲜亮丽的办公大楼延伸到了廉租住宅,这一点肯定会让饱经世故的美国观众嫉妒不已,因为在美国,公共住宅从来都没有成为过一代人严肃反思的话题。
  这个建筑项目由日见重要的都市实践设计事务所设计,它是把已有几个世纪历史的土楼住宅原型,根据全球资本主义城市的冷酷现实加以改变之后形成的建筑设计。这个例子提示我们,这种粗犷的建筑也可以用来实现美好的理想,承认那些经常被忽略的人群的尊严。
  中国传统土楼也称作“小王国”,这种福建农村的建筑能够保护居住在当中的村民不受盗匪劫掠。土楼中心是一个大庭院,外边是一圈厚土墙,进出只有一扇厚厚的大门。
  都市实践的设计过程开始于一个简单的问题,即如何将这个旧的建筑类型应用到中国城市化的尺度和进程夸张的新现实中。50年前,中国大部分地区都是农村,如今这个国家有150多个城市(原文如此——译者注)的人口超过了100万,而美国只有9个。中国城市化的速度只有可能加快。
  随着急需工作的移民涌入深圳和广州这些繁荣起来的城市,令人头痛的住房危机也开始浮现。由于政府10年前停止了大规模公共住宅的修建,大部分人都住进了密密麻麻的塔楼构成的脏乱社区。这些住宅都是由地方开发商修建的,基本上没有监管可言。通常说来,中国新富裕起来的人就住在一旁的光鲜的摩天大厦里,但他们似乎对自己周围的贫困现象熟视无睹。
  都市实践的外观像个大鼓一样的“土楼”被植入这片毫无生气的高楼世界里,体现的是一种象征性存在。这些“土楼”似乎是抵御当代盗匪的堡垒:如今的投机商经常把穷人赶出城市居住区,以便给新的开发项目让路。
  新近在中国南方广州完成的第一个土楼样板使用混凝土花格板做外壳,让人对里面多姿多彩的生活浮想联翩。设计用一系列小商铺围合着建筑的底层,着力创造一个内外相互渗透的空间关系。建筑师在圆形壳体上切出一块空间,将餐厅和几层住宅折转延伸到内部,从视觉上把人流引入内部。另外大入口导引进入小内院和小旅店。
  公寓本身使人想起柯布西埃的“极少”建筑的观念,他为修道院修士的住所订制的紧缩的超高效的空间。土楼内的较小单元比一个宿舍房间大不了多少。较大的单元,设计对象为几个移民合住或小型家庭,则拥有小型客厅,厕所巧妙地藏在厨房的后面。两扇L形门通向卧室,聪明地省掉了隔墙所占的面积。小巧的阳台局部以漂亮的木格扇遮掩,可以用来晾衣服。
  一种被遗忘很久的公共精神在环绕的阳台里被重新拾起,高层之间用廊桥连接的空中花园更为居住者提供了一个交流的空间。和早期政府开发的公房一样,这些公共区域吸引人们走出自家的小屋,形成邻里之间的互动。
  在历史与当代价值之间做出恰如其分平衡在Urbanus都市实践很典型。几个月前我曾访问了他们2006年设计的大芬美术馆。大芬是深圳的一个社区,以其在狭窄的小街里聚集了大批的艺术家摹仿复制从现代中国到西方古典的名画著称。
  都市实践设计的美术馆正像一座低矮的城堡嵌入社区的一个陡坡上,其后耸立的是座座新建的高层住宅。一条宽阔的水泥坡道横过美术馆的正立面引向主入口。进入展馆后各个展厅沿着旋转而上的坡道和踏步分布,最终通向艺术家工作室和屋顶花园。从这里几座步行桥将人引回街区网路中。楼梯和坡道呼应周边街区路网,把美术馆与周边的艺术家聚居区及被高墙围住的大厦连接起来,城市似直接贯穿了美术馆。艺术与公共生活的结合,这正是一个有活力的城市的象征。
  距大芬美术馆半个小时车程的深圳市区里,另一个由都市实践设计的公共艺术广场邻近挤满外来劳工的城中村,广场被构思成一组折叠的台地,地表断裂开来似乎在让城市穿过。步行道轻微的变形对应着附近街巷的格局,广场的斜坡产生一个非常规的露天剧场。斜坡一端下折形成一个小型展览馆的屋顶。
  Urbanus都市实践对于历史延续性的敏锐把这个公司和一长串的名字连在一起,从斯蒂文.霍尔Steven Holl,到阿瓦若·西扎Alvaro Siza,到埃德拉德·苏托·德穆拉Eduardo Souto de Moura。如同西扎的建筑,强调的是运动,通过建构空间主体的流动把人流组织起来,而不是简单的着眼于建筑形式。
  这种设计理念可以反映公司创建者刘晓都、孟岩和王辉与众不同的视角和观念。三人成长于文化大革命时代,一个社会和人们理智动荡且相当残酷的年代,后到美国留学,接触了西方的民主和喧嚣的物质生活。而后再返回急速发展,核心价值观正发生根本性动摇的中国创立了一个进步革新型的事务所。
  经历的宽广无疑使他们能从多元的角度看世界,这对于一个建筑师来讲犹如无价之宝,建筑师最为艰巨的任务便是权衡与协调看似无法调和的价值。一种对于城市的社会和历史结构稀有的敏锐感浸透在他们的作品中。建立在这坚实的基础之上,他们的建筑只会走向更加的深刻与成熟。

【美国《纽约时报》10月13日刊登在C1版面】
A version of this article appeared in print on October 13, 2008, on page C1 of the New York edition.


October 13,2008

In Modern China, 'Little Kingdoms' for the People

By NICOLAI OURORSSOFF

"Tulou: Affordable Housing for China," which just opened at the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, may not dispel the Western image of Chinese cities as nightmarish visions of dehumanizing towers. Architectural projects as divine as this one are still the exception, not the rule.
Nonetheless the exhibition offers further evidence that China has become the most fertile territory on the globe for experimentation by architects. That this burst of innovation extends to affordable housing as well as to monumental Olympic stadiums and gleaming office towers must be particularly envy making for socially attuned audiences in the United States, where public housing hasn't been a serious topic for reflection for a generation.
Designed by the up-and-coming Chinese firm Urbanus, the tulou is a centuries-old housing prototype, reworked for the hard realities of the global capitalist city. It reminds us that bold architecture can serve a good cause, acknowledging the dignity of people who are often treated as invisible.
The Cooper-Hewitt exhibition opens on an atavistic note. A row of crude terra-cotta study models displayed in a glass case, early variations on the firm's design, conjure China's old tulous, or "little kingdoms," built in rural Fujian Province to protect villagers from marauding armies. organized around a large central court, the tulou was encircled by thick earthen walls, with only a single heavy door leading to the outside world.
Urbanus's design process began with the simple question of how to adapt this old housing type to a radical new reality, the scale and pace of China's urbanization. Fifty years ago China was mostly a country of rural villages. Today more than 150 of its cities have a population of a million or more —compared with just nine in the United States — and the speed of urbanization is only likely to accelerate.
One result has been a nagging housing crisis as migrants in desperate need of work pour into booming cities like Shenzhen and Guangzhou. Because the government stopped building large-scale public housing a decade ago, most end up in squalid neighborhoods of densely packed towers that were built by local developers with little oversight. Often the country's new rich live sealed off in glittering high-rises right next door, seemingly indifferent to the poverty around them.
Inserted into this dystopian universe of colorless skyscrapers, the primal drumlike form of Urbanus’s tulous will have a powerful symbolic presence. They suggest fortifications against a contemporary marauder: the speculators who have so often forced the poor out of urban neighborhoods to make way for new development.
The first tulou, which has recently been completed in Guangzhou, in southern China, is enveloped in a perforated concrete shell that hints at the richly textured life inside. Urbanus set out to create a porous relationship between inside and out, with a series of small shops wrapping around the base of the structure. The architects sliced through part of the rounded shell to extend a restaurant and several floors of housing into the complex's interior, visually drawing pedestrians inside. At other points, big entry portals lead into small courtyards and a small inn.
The apartments themselves recall Le Corbusier's notion of "minimal" architecture, compact, super-efficient spaces that he modeled after monks' cells. The smaller units in the tulou are essentially nothing more than dormitory rooms that serve the building's service staff. The larger apartments, designed for groups of migrant workers or small families, have small living areas with bathrooms neatly tucked behind the kitchens. Cleverly designed L-shaped doors connecting the living areas to the bedrooms are cut out of the rooms'  corners to save precious wall space. Narrow balconies, some shielded by pretty wooden shutters, can be used for hanging laundry.
A communal spirit is fostered by rings of balconies surrounding the central court and bridges linking terraces and gardens on the complex's upper levels. Like in some earlier Communist-era housing projects, such areas are intended to lure people out of their apartments and to encourage interaction. They also convey a generous sense of space even as the design maximizes efficiency.
This graceful balancing act between historical and contemporary values is typical of Urbanus. A few months ago I visited the art museum they completed in 2006 in Dafen, a Shenzhen neighborhood where artists can be found in narrow alleyways painting kitschy reproductions of everything from contemporary Chinese works to old European masters.
The museum's low bunkerlike form is embedded in the side of a steep hill, with a cluster of new residential towers rising directly behind it. A broad concrete ramp leading to the entrance runs across its facade. Inside, the exhibition galleries are set within a labyrinth of stairs and ramps that weave up to the back of the building, leading to a rooftop sculpture garden and artists' studios. From there, bridges lead back out to the street grid.
The staircases and ramps are intended to echo the neighborhood's alleyways, as if the city flowed directly through the museum, linking the artistic quarter to the gated high rises above. Art and public life are the city's symbolic connective tissue.
A half-hour away, in downtown Shenzhen, a small public park and community museum designed by Urbanus sits at the edge of a densely packed neighborhood of migrant workers. Completed in 2006, the tiny park is conceived as a series of folding planes, as if the ground's surface were breaking apart to allow the city to flow through the site.
Slight inflections in the pavement reflect the pattern of nearby alleys. A sloping section of the park creates an informal amphitheater, folding down at one end to enclose the roof of a small museum.
Urbanus's sensitivity to historical continuity links the firm to a long line of architects, from Steven Holl to Alvaro Siza and Eduardo Souto de Moura. As with Mr. Siza's buildings, the emphasis is on movement, the flow of bodies through space, the fabric that binds people together, rather than simply on architectural forms.
This philosophy may reflect the distinctive perspective of the firm's founders, Xiaodu Liu, Yan Meng and Hui Wang. All three grew up during the Cultural Revolution, an era of social and intellectual ferment as well as extreme cruelty. All left China to study in the United States, where they were exposed both to Western democracy and blatant consumerism. They returned to China and founded a progressive firm in a booming country whose underlying values were being shaken to the core.
That range of experience is doubtless what enables them to see the world through multiple lenses, a trait invaluable to architects, whose most onerous task is balancing what may seem like irreconcilable values. It also imbues their work with a rare tenderness for the social and historic fabric of the city. Built on such a solid foundation, their architecture is only likely to grow in depth.

Tags: 土楼纽约展 纽约时报

分类:实践动态|News | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: -31 | 查看次数: 5724
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